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Now that we have covered the basics of plural forms of Dutch nouns, the next step is to learn about Dutch pronouns. Pronouns are an essential part of any language, as they allow speakers to refer to people, places, and things without constantly repeating their names.

Personal pronouns are an essential part of the Dutch language, used to replace a noun that has already been mentioned or is already known to the speakers.


1st person



2nd person

je/jij ; u (formal)


3rd person

hij (masculine) ; ze/zij (feminine) ; het (neutral)

he; she ; it


1st person



2nd person

jullie; u (formal)


3rd person



One aspect that makes Dutch pronouns unique is their emphasis on formality and politeness. Unlike in English, Dutch has two different pronouns in some cases. The use of these pronouns depends on the speaker's relationship with the listener and the context of the conversation.

Putting the emphasis







When we want to highlight the subject in a sentence, we use the first form of pronouns (jij/zij/wij).

For instance:

  • If we want to ask someone about where they live, we can emphasize the subject by saying, "Ik woon in Amsterdam. Waar woon jij?" (I live in Amsterdam. Where do you live?)
  • In another example, if we want to express a preference that differs from others, we can emphasize the subject by using the first-person pronoun, as in "Onze vrienden gaan op vakantie naar Spanje, maar wij gaan liever skiën." (Our friends are going on holidays in Spain, but we prefer to go skiing.)

The distinction between u, je/jij en jullie

In Dutch, personal pronouns used when addressing someone in the second person can vary depending on the formality of the situation. The pronoun "u" is used to address someone in a more formal way, such as a boss, an elderly person, a person of authority, or someone you don’t know yet. It's important to know when and how to use this form.

It's worth noting that "u" can be used to address one or more people, but the verb conjugation will always remain in the singular form. On the other hand, the pronouns "je" or "jij" and "jullie" are used to address someone in a more informal way, such as friends, family members, or acquaintances.

Here are some examples of when to use "u" and "je/jij/jullie" in Dutch:

  • Formal situations:

    • Excuseer, weet u waar het station is? (Pardon me, do you know where the station is?)
    • Meneer en mevrouw Jansens, gaat u naar huis? (Mr and Ms Jansens, are you going home?)
  • Informal situations:

    • Hallo, hoe gaat het met je? (Hi, how are you?)
    • Hoi jongens, wat gaan jullie vanavond doen? (Hey guys, what are you doing tonight?)